1. How do you calculate cardiac output (formula)? ________________
How much blood is contained in the average human? ________
2. Arteries carry blood ____________ from the heart.
Veins carry blood _____ the heart.
Which (arteries or veins) carries oxygenated blood? ___________
Name the one vessel that is the exception: ___________________
3. What do you call the loose, outer layer of the sac around the heart? _______________________
What side points toward the heart (inside layer)? _________________
What layer is on the outside? _____________
4. When vessels expand, it is called _____________________
When they contract? ____________________
5. Briefly describe the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium
6. Describe the size and location of the heart.
Where is the apex of the heart located? _______________________
What divides the left and right side of the heart? __________________
Which side is more muscular? __________________
What bone lies directly in front of the heart? _______________
7. During systole, the aortic valve is __________________.
During diastole, the aortic valve is __________________.
8. Veins and arteries meet at ________________________, where nutrients are exchanged with body tissues.
Arteries branch into smaller vessels called _________________
Veins also have smaller branches called __________________
9. What three things push blood back to the heart (through the veins)? _________________________
What are pre-capillary sphincters? _____________________________________
10. Describe the function of the sinoatrial node and trace the path of a nerve (cardiac) impulse through the cardiac conduction system.
What is the pacemaker? ____________________________
What fibers cause a contraction in the ventricle? ________________________
Where is the AV node located? ________________________
11. What do the terms tachycardia and bradycardia mean? What is arrhythmia? Be able to identify these on an ECG.
12. Generally speaking, when the ventricle contracts, the atrium ________________
Any contraction (atrial or ventricular) is called ___________________
Relaxing is called _______________. At what point is blood pressure at its highest? _______________
14. Identify the P-Wave, the QRS complex and a T wave on an ECG.
What is an ECG? (Be able to analyze one)
15. What is a defibrillator used for? How does it work?
16. What are systolic pressure and diastolic pressure? What is the “normal” blood pressure for a human?
17. What two piece of equipment are needed to take a person’s blood pressure?
Describe the procedure:
18. Name and give the function of all four valves of the heart. Some have multiple names; make sure you know all of them.
19. Blood that moves from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart again is in the _____________________ circuit.
Blood moving throughout the body is in the ___________________ circuit.
20. List the three major vessels that branch off of the aortic arch. You may want to draw a diagram.
21. Label all of the major vessels that attach to the heart.
22. Label a diagram of the heart and trace the flow of blood through the heart.
23. Know each of the following diseases related to the circulatory system, included how they are treated
Mitral Valve Prolapse _____________________________________________________________
Cardiac Infarction ________________________________________________________________
Heart Murmer ___________________________________________________________________
Deep Vein Thrombosis (Blood Clots) _________________________________________________