1. A nucleotide is made of three parts: a ___________________ group, a five carbon __________________, and a nitrogen containing _____________________
2. In a single strand of DNA, the phosphate group binds to the __________________ of the next group.
3. The 5’ end of a single DNA strand contains a free __________________, while the 3’ end contains a free __________________________.
4. Chromosomes consist of what two substances: ____________________ & ______________________
5. DNA was not thought to be the genetic blueprint originally; instead many scientists hypothesized that _______________________ contained the genetic code and blueprint of life. (They were later proven wrong.)
6. Purines have _________ rings, and pyrimidines have ____________ ring.
7. Check each of the following statements that are true with regard to Griffith’s experiments.
a. ______ Griffith discovered transformation in bacteria.
b. ______ Mice injected with non-encapsulated bacteria quickly became sick and died.
c. ______ Encapsulated bacteria can become “naked” bacteria.
d. ______ Bacteria that are naked tend to be harmless.
e. ______ Naked bacteria can develop a capsule only after exposure to the DNA of encapsulated bacteria.
f. ______ Griffith’s transforming factor was the protein in the capsule.
g. ______ Heating the encapsulated bacteria preventing transformation of the naked variety.
h. ______ Transformation allows bacteria to acquire new genes.
i. ______ Enzymes that destroyed DNA would prevent transformation.
8. Check each of the following statements that are true with regard to the Hershey-Chase experiment.
a. _______ DNA was labeled with radioactive phosphorous.
b. _______ Protein was not labeled.
c. _______ Radioactive sulfur was found in the offspring phages after they emerged from the cell.
d. _______ Phage proteins were not transmitted to host cell or to offspring.
9. Chargaff’s rule states that the DNA of any species contains equal amounts of __________________ & ____________ and also equal amounts of __________________ & ____________________
10. Wilkins and Franklin studied the structure of DNA using _________________________ and determined that the shape of the molecule was a __________________
11. James Watson and Francis Crick amended Franklin and Wilkins’s conclusions and determined that the shape of the molecule was instead a _________________ __________________
12. In DNA, thymine is complementary to ________________ ; cytosine is complementary to _____________
13. In a strand of DNA, the percentage of thymine is 30 %. What is the percentage of cytosine in the same DNA strand? _________________
14. Number the steps of DNA replication in the correct order (1, 2, 3)
_______Polymerase travels down the DNA parent strand from the 3’ to 5’ direction.
______ DNA unwinds
______ Ligase binds okazaki fragments together
15. Why is DNA replication called “semi-conservative”? __________________________________________
16. What enzyme unwinds or unzips the parent strand? ________________
17. The junction between separated strands is called the ________________________________
18. What enzyme synthesizes the new DNA strand? _______________________
19. What enzyme binds fragments of DNA on the lagging strand? ______________________
20. DNA polymerase only travels in the ________ to _________ direction.
21. On the diagram:
Label the 3’ and 5’ ends.
Circle a nucleotide.
Label the sugar and phosphate.
Label the bases that are not already labeled
22. The two sides of the DNA helix are held together by ________________________
23. Write out the complete name for DNA: __________________________________________
24. Name the scientist(s) responsible for each of the following discoveries.
_____________________________________ Bacterial transformation
_____________________________________ The base-pair rule
_____________________________________ DNA was the hereditary material of viruses
_____________________________________ The shape of DNA was a helix
_____________________________________ The shape of DNA was a double helix
25. A permanent change in the sequence of bases is called a(n): _________________________________
What process can prevent these errors from occurring? _____________________________________